FORMAT

EXAMPLE: FACT 190300Z 31008KT 9999 SCT035 BKN050 09/04 01014 RESH NOSIG=

DECODE:

To simplify the Metar decode and explanation, the above Metar will be broken into the numbered group. During the following explanations, the group number in brackets refers to the elements provided in the following Metar.

 GROUP      (1)        (2)             (3)            (4)          (5)          (6)            (7)     (8)         (9)

  METAR    FACT    190300Z   31008KT        9999     VCRA   SCT035   BKN050      09/04  Q1014  RESH  NOSIG=

GROUP (1)-Reporting Station

 Example 1:FACT – (Cape Town)

GROUP (2)- Date and Time

Example 1:UTC

GROUP (3)-Wind

Example 1:31008KT

GROUP (4)-Visibility Or Runway Visual Range (RVR)

Horizontal visibility is reported using the following reporting steps:

(a) 0 to 500m, rounded down to the nearest 50m

(b) 500   to 5000m, rounded down to the nearest 100m

(c) 5000 to 9999m, rounded down to the nearest 500m

(d) 9999 indicates 10 km or more

                                                     Example 1:999-10KM OR MORE

                                                          Example 1:03L/0800

GROUP (5)-Present Weather

 Example 1:VCRA

Meaning: moderate rain in the vicinity of the aerodrome

GROUP (6)- Clouds

The cloud amount is reported as one of the following:

          FEW      Few           (1 to 2 oktas)

          SCT      Scattered   (3 to 4 oktas)

          BKN      Broken      (5 to 7 oktas)

          OVC      Overcast   (8 oktas)

  Example 1: SCT035 BKN050

Meaning: 3 to 4 oktas cloud at 3500 ft and 5 to 7 oktas at 5000 ft

GROUP (7)-Temperature/dew point

Example 1:09/04

Meaning: Temperature +9C and Dew point +4C.

Temperature below 0oC is immediately preceded by M that is (-)

GROUP (8)-QNH

The observed QNH value rounded down to the nearest whole hectopascal is indicated, preceded without space, by the letter indicator Q.

If the value of QNH is less than 1 000 hPa, it is preceded by 0; for Example, QNH 995.6 is reported as Q0995

GROUP (9)- SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION

RECENT WEATHER (RE)

This refers to recent weather phenomena of operational significant.

  • Freezing precipitation
  • Moderate/heavy rain or snow
  • Moderate/heavy ice pellets/hail
  • Moderate/heavy blowing snow
  • Sandstorm or dust storm
  • Thunderstorm Volcanic ash fallout

Example 1: RESH

Meaning: Recent Showers

WIND SHEAR (WS):

If the wind shear along the take-off path or approach path is affecting all runways in the airport, then the code WS ALL RWY is used.

Also indicated will be any recorded wind shear activity, along the take-off path or approach path between runway level and 1 600ft, significant to aircraft operations.

Example 2: WSRWY21R

TREND FORECAST (Two hours from the time of observation)

In trend forecast attached to METAR reports only three indicates are used:

Example: WSRWY21R

BECMG     –     Becoming

TEMPO     –     Temporary

NOSIG       –    No significant change

CRITERIA FOR ISSUING SPECI REPORTS

A SPECI is issued in the same format and sequence as a METAR. It is simply a special weather report issued for a station as a result of the following changes:

a)SURFACE WIND

b)VISIBILITY

c)WEATHER

d)CLOUD BASE

e)CLOUD AMOUNT

f)      TEMPERATURE

End of Message 

An equals sign (=) appears at the end of the METAR to denote that the message is complete

METAR    FACT    190300Z   31008KT        9999     VCRA   SCT035   BKN050      09/04  Q1014  RESH  NOSIG=

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